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Ira.


A term used in the Peruvian and Bolivian altiplano for one of a pair of hocketing Panpipes, each played by a different male musician. The ira is considered masculine and typically leads the ‘feminine’ panpipes, the arca.

Iradier [Yradier] (y Salaverri), Sebastián de


(b Lanciego, Alava, 20 Jan 1809; d Vitoria, 6 Dec 1865). Spanish composer. He was appointed organist first of S Miguel Arcángel in Vitoria (1825) and then of S Juan Bautista, Salvatierra (1827), which he won through competition, gaining ‘marks in excess of highest quality’ in sight-reading, prepared works and accompaniment. He received a leave of absence of three or four months from S Juan Bautista in July 1833, but never returned. In 1839 he was appointed to teach solfège at the Madrid Conservatory, a post he held until 1851, when he was succeeded by Juan Castellano.

In 1847 he collaborated with Cristóbal Oudrid and Luis Cepeda in the production of the zarzuela La pradera del Canal. In Paris, in 1855, he taught singing to the Spanish-born Empress Eugénie. His Spanish songs, many exploiting the Cuban habanera rhythm, became immensely successful in both Europe and the Americas, and were performed by such famous singers as Viardot and Patti. La paloma (Madrid, 1859, Paris, 1864) remains perhaps the most popular Spanish song ever written. Bizet adapted his song El arreglito for the habanera in the first act of Carmen; apparently he thought it was a folksong. On learning his mistake – it had been published in a French translation, along with 24 other songs, in Iradier’s Fleurs d’Espagne (Paris, 1864) – he added a note in the vocal score of Carmen acknowledging the source.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


MGG1 PazdírekH [incl. list of works]

W.

Dean

: Georges Bizet (London, 1965), 215, 228 [quotes music of El arregelito]

F.

Sopeña Ibáñez

: Historia crítica del Conservatorio de Madrid (Madrid, 1967), 248

D.

Preciado

: ‘Sebastián de Iradier (1809–1865)’, RdMc, vii (1984), 125–70

E.

Casares

, ed.

: Francisco Asenjo Barbieri: Documentos sobre música española y epistolario, Legado Barbieri, ii (Madrid, 1988), 667

J.J.

Fuld

: The Book of World-Famous Music (New York, 1995), 420–21, 586

BRUCE CARR/DIONISIO PRECIADO/ROBERT STEVENSON


Irakere.


Cuban jazz and popular dance band. It was founded in 1969–72 in La Habana, and is recognized as one of the most significant musical ensembles to have emerged in Cuba since the 1959 Revolution. Founding members include pianist and leader Jesús Chucho Valdés, vocalist and percussionist Oscar Valdés (no relation), saxophonist Paquito D'Rivera, trumpet players Arturo Sandoval and Jorge Varona, bassist Carlos del Puerto, guitarist Carlos Emilio Morales and drummer Enrique Plá. Growing out of the Orquesta Cubana de Música Moderna (1967), these musicians experimented with new sounds based on jazz improvisation and Afro-Cuban percussion and rhythms. In 1972 the group was officially established under the name Irakere (a Yoruba word meaning vegetation and growth).

Through the 1970s and 80s, Irakere gained international acclaim for its innovative compositions, dynamic musical fusions and also the dazzling virtuosity of its soloists. Important works include the Misa negra (the Black Mass, based on Afro-Cuban sacred music) and collaborations with Cuban composer Leo Brouwer, in addition to several dance-oriented albums. A recording of 1978 performances at the Newport and Montreux jazz festivals won a US Grammy Award. Despite several changes in personnel and the departure of many prominent original members, Irakere continues under the direction of Chucho Valdés and remains one of Cuba's most distinguished jazz ensembles.


RECORDINGS


Misa negra, Messidor 15972 (1987) Calzada del cerro, Vitral 4053 (1989) Grandes momentos de Irakere, Egrem 5 (1991) Babalú ayé, Bembé 2020 (1998)

LISE WAXER


Iran,


Islamic Republic of, [formerly Persia] (Per. Jomhuri-e-Eslami-e-Iran). Country in the Middle East. It has an area of about 1·65 million km2, of which a vast portion is desert, and a population of 76·43 million (2000 estimate). Most Iranians are of Aryan stock and speak an Indo-European tongue, Farsi (or Persian). The official state religion since 1501 has been Shi‘a Islam, but there are also 850,000 Sunnis in Iran (mostly Kurdish, Baluchi and Turkmen people but also some Sunni minorities in Persian-speaking areas, e.g. southern Khorasan), as well as smaller groups of other faiths (over 100,000 Armenians and 60,000 Jews, about 20,000 Parsis, 20,000 Nestorians, 8500 Protestants etc.). Aside from Kurdish music, little music research has been carried out among the religious minorities in Iran (e.g. Armenian and Assyrian Christians, Zoroastrians, Jews (although see Jewish music, §III, 8(ii)) and Baha’is).

The name Persia is correctly confined to the period from 600 bce to 1935 ce, when the country was officially renamed Iran, but the name ‘Persia’ continued for some time to be used to designate the entire country (as well as the language). However, many scholars now prefer to use ‘Iran’ for the region throughout its history.

The vast territory of present-day Iran extends over a high plateau, separated from adjoining regions by the Zagros mountains in the west, the Elburz mountain chain in the north and the lower, more arid Eastern highlands in the east: most of the important urban centres lie to the north, west and south of the great Central desert (fig.1). I. Pre-Islamic II. Classical traditions III. Regional and popular traditions BIBLIOGRAPHY

BO LAWERGREN (I), HORMOZ FARHAT (II), STEPHEN BLUM (III)

Iran


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